Horse Racing Terms

This handy jargon-buster can help you understand some of the common horse racing terms.

When listening to horse racing commentators you will hear horse racing jargon, sayings, quotes and slang you might not understand.

In our horse racing terms guide, we run through all the terminologies and meanings behind popular said horse racing sayings.

A-Z Horse Racing Terms

Abandoned

The status of a race or racecourse described as closed, usually as a result of bad weather.

Age

The age of a horse.

All-weather

A synthetic racing surface usually made from sand, which generally is not affected by the weather.

Allowance

The deduction in the weight a horse must carry. This can be a result of the age or the gender of the horse or the type of jockey (amateur).

The weight of a race horse can be reduced by younger jockeys or apprentices.

Ante-post

A bet placed in advance of the final declarations of a race. Bookmakers usually offer better odds, but no refunds are given in the event of a non-runner.

Backward

A horse not fit or fully developed.

Bit

A bar (usually made of stainless steel) that sits in the horse’s mouth and is attached to the bridle.

Black type

A race which is of Listed or Group class.

Blinkers

A type of headgear fitted to a horse that limits its field of vision, mainly from each side. Blinkers are designed to help horses concentrate in races.

Bloodstock

A term used to describe the part of the racing industry which deals with racehorse breeding, be it at the sales, stud farms or elsewhere.

Boxed in

When a horse cannot obtain a clear run during a race due to other horses being in close proximiity.

Breeze-up

A sale in which unraced two-year-olds are ridden, galloped or ‘breezed’ along the racecourse. Most of the horses have been purchased as yearlings, and are then broken in and ridden in preparation for them galloping at the sale.

Bridle

A piece of tack that fits over a horse’s head and to which the bit and reins are attached.

Broodmare

A mare (female horse) at stud who is kept with the aim of producing a foal.

Brought down

Used to describe a horse who falls because of another horse, rather than falling independently.

Bumper

Also known as a National Hunt Flat race, and usually run over two miles without any obstacles. Commonly used as a way to give horses race experience before tackling hurdles and fences.

Chase

A race run over fences.

Cheekpieces

A form of headgear which consists of pieces of sheepskin placed on either side of the bridle and performs a similar job as blinkers in helping the horse to concentrate.

Claimer

A jockey who takes weight off a horse to compensate for their relative inexperience as a rider. Their claim is reduced the more winners they have.

Classic

Grade 1 contests confined to three-year-olds only in Britain. There are five Classics in Britain: 2,000 Guineas, 1,000 Guineas, Oaks, Derby, St Leger.

Clerk of the course

The person responsible for the overall management of a racecourse on a raceday.

Colt

An uncastrated male horse aged four years old or younger. A colt older than four is referred to as an entire or horse (if still racing) or stallion (if at stud).

Connections

A term often used in place of a horse’s owners and trainer.

Dam

Mother of a horse.

Dead-heat

When the raceday judge cannot split two or more horses at the finishing-line, the prize is split between the horses and a dead-heat is called.

Declared

A formal notification from a trainer that notifies the racing authorities they intend to run a horse in a certain race. Horses are commonly declared at either the 24-hour or 48-hour stage prior to a race.

Draw

A term in Flat racing denoting a horse’s position in the starting stalls.

Fences

The type of obstacle jumped during chase races. There are different types of fence, including an open-ditch, the water jump and a plain fence.

Filly

A female horse aged four or younger.

Foal

A horse aged younger than one.

Form

A horse’s race record which is denoted by figures next to its name in a racecard. The form may also include some letters, for example F denoting a fall.

Furlong

An imperial unit of distance measurement in horseracing. A furlong is an eighth of a mile or a little more than 201 metres.

Gallop

A training strip used to exercise horses. Trainers have access to either their own private gallops or public gallops.

Gelding

A horse who has been castrated, often to improve its temperament.

Going

The underfoot conditions at the racecourse.

GoingStick

A device used to measure the underfoot conditions at the racecourse.

Graded race

The highest quality of race. Grade or Group 1 races are the highest quality, with Grade 2 and Grade 3 races a slightly lower quality.

Hacked up

A phrase used to describe a horse who has won comfortably.

Handicap

A type of race in which horses carry different weights depending on their overall rating, which is determined by the handicapper.

Handicapper

An official who assesses how horses should be rated, based on their previous performances.

Hood

Another type of headgear fitted over the horse’s head to cover its ears and muffle the noise of a raceday.

Hurdles

The obstacles jumped during a hurdle race. They are smaller than fences and therefore take less jumping. Sometimes referred to as flights.

In-running

Refers to anything that happens during a race, and could refer to in-running betting markets or in-running race comments.

Juvenile

A two-year-old horse.

Length

The length of a horse from its nose to the start of its tail, and a measurement used to describe the distances between horses at the finish line.

Listed race

A race type one step below Grade 3/Group 3 contests.

Maiden

A horse who has yet to win a race.

Mare

A female horse aged five or older.

Nap

A bet considered to be the most likely winner of all bets during the day.

National Hunt

Known as jumps racing. One of two racing codes, the other being Flat. National Hunt racing is best known in Britain and Ireland.

Neck

A measurement used to describe a winning margin in a close finish. A short head is the smallest winning margin.

Non-runner

A horse withdrawn from a race for which it had been declared.

Noseband

A strap that goes over a horse’s nose to secure the birdle. They can help prevent the horse from getting its tongue over the bit which can obstruct its breathing.

Novice

A race for horses who are in their first season in that code of racing. Can have age specific conditions, particularly on the Flat.

Nursery

A handicap race for two-year-old horses.

Odds

The chance offered for a selection to win. Also known as price.

Off the bridle

Many non-racegoers ask “what does off the bridle mean?” and it means a horse not travelling well.

A horse being pushed along by its jockey to keep up with the pace is said to be “off the bridle”.

A horse that is off the bridle has run out of energy and lost contact with the jockey using the bit and reins.

On the bridle

A term to describe a horse travelling well.

One-paced

A term used to describe a horse who cannot quicken when the tempo of the race increases.

Open ditch

A fence with a ditch on the take-off side, forcing the horse to make a longer jump than at a plain fence.

Outsider

A horse whose chance of winning is considered unlikely by the market.

Pacemaker

A horse who races with the aim of ensuring the even tempo of race, thus helping a stablemate who would benefit.

Paddock

The area of a racecourse where horses are paraded before each race. Often referred to as the parade ring.

Parade ring

The area of a racecourse where horses are paraded before each race. Also referred to as the paddock.

Photo finish

A close race finish, requiring the raceday judge to consult a photo before declaring the winner or a dead-heat. A photo can also help determine the placings behind the winner.

Pulled up

Being pulled up is when a horse is brought to a halt during a race by its jockey.

Pulling up a horse happens when the horse is down the field or might be injured.

Pulling

A horse who is keen during a race and wants to go faster than its jockey is allowing. Often described as pulling for its head.

Punter

Someone who has had a bet on the outcome of a race.

Pushed out

A term to describe a horse who has gone clear of its rivals in a race after minimal urging from its jockey.

Racecard

A programme giving information about the races scheduled during a race meeting and the horses set to run in them.

Schooling

A term to describe a horse being trained and getting practice over obstacles.

Silks

An owner’s colours.

Sire

Father of a horse.

Sprinter

A horse who competes in races run over a short distance, usually over six furlongs or less.

Stallion

A male horse used for breeding.

Stalls

The box from which horses begin Flat races.

Staying on

A phrase frequently used by race commentators or in post-race comments referring to a horse who finished strongly during the closing stages.

Stewards’ inquiry

An inquiry held at the racecourse on a raceday after any given race. The panel is advised by the stewards.

Stud

An establishment set up for breeding of horses. Stallions are based at studs and are sent mares to breed with.

Tattersalls

The main auctioneer of racehorses in Britain and Ireland.

Thoroughbred

The breed of horse best known for its use in horseracing.

Tongue-tie

A strap or piece of stocking used to tie down a horse’s tongue to prevent the tongue getting over the bit which affects a horse’s breathing.

Triple Crown

To win the Flat Triple Crown in Britain, a horse must win either the 2,000 or 1,000 Guineas, either the Derby or the Oaks, and the St Leger. There is a staying chasers

Triple Crown for jumps horses consisting of the Betfair Chase, the King George VI Chase and the Gold Cup.

Turn of foot

A term to describe marked exceleration during a race.

Under starter’s orders

Before a race, the starter brings the field of horses into order to prepare them for the start of the race.

Undulating

A track that does not have a flat terrain. Cheltenham is often referred to as an undulating track.

Visor

A type of headgear, much the same as blinkers, which limits a horse’s rearward vision to aid concentration. A visor differs from blinkers as it has a small slit in the eye cups.

Weighed in

Every horse in a race has to carry a certain amount of weight. To ensure it does, all jockeys must weight out both before and after a race. The ‘weighed in’ announcement made after the race means the horse racing result stands.

Whip

An instrument used by jockeys to help keep horses under control and to encourage them.

Yard

A term that refers to a trainer and their horses. Also referred to as a stable.

Yearling

A young horse between the age of one and two.

Summary of Horse Betting Terms

 

 

As the Founder of British Racecourses, I have a life-long passion for horse racing and have loved the sport as long as I can remember. I am also a keen racehorse owner and have worked in the gambling industry for several years. I set up British Racecourses with the desire to share my passion for racing with other like-minded people.